The rule of thumb is that the current version of Maple is compatible with the last three releases of the major operating systems (i.e. Windows, Mac OS X, Red Hat Linux, SUSE Linux, and Ubuntu Linux).
On the Maplesoft website, you can find our official road map for recent versions of Maple, along with a compatibility chart for older versions of Maple and the major operating systems.
Older version of Maple on a newer operating system
Generally, a version or update of Maple is not supported on a version or update of an operating system which was released later. However, it may still be possible to install and run Maple.
There are a few prospective workarounds, however:
Ensure Maple has the latest patch (e.g. update Maple 2018.0 to 2018.2).
For Windows, run, "as administrator", Maple and the installer in an appropriate "Compatibility Mode" (i.e. the latest Windows for which your version of Maple is supported).
Update your graphics drivers.
Newer version of Maple on an older operating system
Maple may work on older operating systems. Unfortunately, beyond ensuring that your operating system and drivers (on Windows and Linux) are fully up-to-date, it just may not be possible to get Maple running.